An Introduction to Nineteenth Century Art
Using the tools of the "new" art history (feminism, Marxism, social context, etc.) An Introduction to Nineteenth-Century Art offers a richly textured, yet clear and logical, introduction to nineteenth-century art and culture. This textbook will provide readers with a basic historical framework of the period and the critical tools for interpreting and situating new and unfamiliar works of art. Michelle Facos goes beyond existing histories of nineteenth-century art, which often focus solely on France, Britain, and the United States, to incorporate artists and artworks from Scandinavia, Germany, and Eastern Europe. The book expertly balances its coverage of trends and individual artworks: where the salient trends are clear, trend-setting works are highlighted, and the complexity of the period is respected by situating all works in their proper social and historical context. In this way, the student reader achieves a more nuanced understanding of the way in which the story of nineteenth-century art is the story of the ways in which artists and society grappled with the problem of modernity. Key pedagogical features include: Data boxes provide statistics, timelines, charts, and historical information about the period to further situate artworks. Text boxes highlight extracts from original sources, citing the ideas of artists and their contemporaries, including historians, philosophers, critics, and theorists, to place artists and works in the broader context of aesthetic, cultural, intellectual, social, and political conditions in which artists were working. Beautifully illustrated with over 250 color images. Margin notes and glossary definitions. Online resources at www.routledge.com/textbooks/facos with access to a wealth of information, including original documents pertaining to artworks discussed in the textbook, contemporary criticism, timelines and maps to enrich your understanding of the period and allow for further comparison and exploration. Chapters take a thematic approach combined within an overarching chronology and more detailed discussions of individual works are always put in the context of the broader social picture, thus providing students with a sense of art history as a controversial and alive arena of study. Michelle Facos teaches art history at Indiana University, Bloomington. Her research explores the changing relationship between artists and society since the Enlightenment and issues of identity. Prior publications include Nationalism and the Nordic Imagination: Swedish Painting of the 1890s (1998), Art, Culture and National Identity in Fin-de-Siecle Europe, co-edited with Sharon Hirsh (2003), and Symbolist Art in Context (2009).
Contents: Acknowledgements Illustrations Introduction Chapter 1: A Time of Transition Social Critique Moral Reform Monarch as Model Era of Change Age of Discovery Grand Tour Antiquity Becomes Fashionable Neoclassical Style Calm Grandeur in Dante Conclusion Chapter 2: Classical Influences and Radical Transformations Neoclassicm in Britain Neoclassicism Becomes Popular The Elgin Marbles Homer Illustrations Political Instability in France D'Angiviller's Reform Program Roman Virtue Neoclassical Eroticism Neoclassical Sculpture Neoclassicism in Denmark and the German States Conclusion Chapter 3: Re-presenting Contemporary History Legitimizing Contemporary History Painting of Contemporary History in France Political Instability New Hero for a New Republic Equestrian Portraits: Rulers on Horseback Neoclassicism made Ridiculous Legitimizing Bonaparte Transgressive History Painting Representing Republican Values Establishing Museums Conclusion Chapter 4: Romanticism Origins and Characteristics Burke's Sublime Blake and the Imagination Nature Mysticism Goya: Ambiguity and Modernism Abnormal Mental States Sculpture Escape to the National Past: England Medievalism in France: Troubadour Style Medievalism in the German States The Nazarenes Conclusion Chapter 5: Shifting Focus: Art and the Natural World New Attitudes Toward Nature Academic Landscape Tradition Nature and the Sublime The Picturesque Turner: From Convention to Innovation Constable: Conservative Nostalgia Naturalism and Tourism Friedrich: Patriotism and Spirituality Feminization of Nature Hudson River School American West Conclusion Chapter 6: Colonialism, Imperialism, Orientalism Documenting Distant Lands and People Colonial Citizens Picturing Slavery Native Americans: Ideal or Foe? Orientalism Emerges Orient Imagined Delacroix's Orientalism Orientalist Sculpture International Exhibitions Conclusion Chapter 7: New Audiences, New Approaches Modernism, Urbanization, Instability Bourgeois Morality and the Separation of Spheres Biedermeier and the Emergence of Middle Class Culture Biedermeier Portraiture Biedermeier Cityscapes Biedermeier Peasant Painting Biedermeier Landscape Biedermeier History Painting Golden Age in Denmark Biedermeier in Russia Mid-Century America Victorian Painting Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Municipal Art Associations Conclusion Chapter 8: Photography as Fact and Fine Art "Invention" of Photography Documenting Current Events Social Reform Photography and Science Portraiture Landscape Travel Photography as a Fine Art Pictorialism and New Technologies Conclusion Chapter 9: Realism and the Urban Poor Contrasting Responses to 1848 Urban Migration Social Unrest Alcoholism Female Suicide Middle Class Working Women Poor Working Women Prostitution Documenting Work Idealized Labor Oppressed Workers Reforming the Poor Conclusion Chapter 10: Imagined Communities: Views of Peasant Life Peasant Identity Peasant Imagery Before 1848 Courbet's Burial: More than Just a Funeral Academically Acceptable Peasant Images Powerful Peasants: Heroic or Threatening? Pitiable Peasants Idealized Peasants Grim Realities Conclusion Chapter 11: Crisis in the Academy The Importance of Titles History Painting and Autobiography: Courbet The Situation of Women Artists Salon of 1863 and Salon des Refuses Salon of 1865 Sculpture and Politics Foreign Artists in Paris Art Academies in Austria and the German States Menzel and Academic Realism World's Fairs Conclusion Chapter 12: Impressionism Truth Haussmannization New Paris Flaneurs and Boulevardiers Experimentation Old Paris Bourgeois Leisure Cafe Society Suburban Industry Suburban Leisure Natural and Acquired Identities Gare Saint Lazare Seaside Resorts Beaches, Bathing, and Hygiene Cezanne and Postimpressionism The Macchiaioli Conclusion Chapter 13: Symbolism Symbolist Precursors Animate Nature Music Music and Genius Rodin: Abstract Ideas in Human Form Pessimistic Withdrawal Women: Angels or Whores? Imagination Out of Control Virgin Mothers Social Pessimism Memory and Degeneration Gauguin: Seeking But Never Finding Van Gogh: Expressing Nature Genius and Creativity Beyond the Five Senses Conclusion Chapter 14: Individualism and Collectivism Artists' Colonies Pont Aven Worpswede Skagen Artist Organizations Society of Independent Artists The Nabis Rose + Croix Les XX National Identity Franceã: Monet's Cathedrals Russia Serbia Poland Finland Hungary Conclusion Epilogue: Looking Toward the Twentieth Century Bibliography Glossary Index
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